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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 362-373

Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction


1 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA
2 Department of Pediatrics; McPherson Eye Research Institute, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA
3 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences; McPherson Eye Research Institute, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA

Correspondence Address:
Nader Sheibani
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, 9453 WIMR, Madison, WI 53705-2275
USA
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Source of Support: This work was supported by grants R01 EY016995, RC4 EY021357, R24 EY022883, R21 EY023024, P30 EY016665 and P30 CA014520 UW Paul P. Carbone Cancer Center Support Grant from the National Institutes of Health and an unrestricted departmental award from Research to Prevent Blindness. NS is a recipient of a Research Award from American Diabetes Association, 1-10-BS-160 and Retina Research Foundation. ESS is supported by a UW-Madison UW-Milwaukee Inter Campus grant and predoctoral fellowship from American Heart Association, 12PRE12030099., Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2008-322X.143378

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Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.


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